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Web21/09/ · Generally, a download manager enables downloading of large files or multiples files in one session. Many web browsers, such as Internet Explorer 9, include a download manager WebIf you wish to use Unicode characters in the comment string then the preferred method is to use perl and UTF-8 strings, see "UNICODE IN EXCEL". Option: author. This option is used to indicate who the author of the comment is. Excel displays the author of the comment in the status bar at the bottom of the worksheet WebRésidence officielle des rois de France, le château de Versailles et ses jardins comptent parmi les plus illustres monuments du patrimoine mondial et constituent la plus complète réalisation de l’art français du XVIIe siècle Web14/12/ · If you're an IT pro, you undoubtedly have at least some geek in you — or you have a geek in your life. From MacBooks to motorized pool floats, these 10 gifts are sure to please any geek WebIO tools (text, CSV, HDF5, )# The pandas I/O API is a set of top level reader functions accessed like blogger.com_csv() that generally return a pandas object. The corresponding writer functions are object methods that are accessed like blogger.com_csv().Below is a table containing available readers and writers ... read more

pl program in the examples directory of the distro. Array references within the data will be treated as rows. This conforms to an ISO date but it should be noted that the full range of ISO formats are not supported.

Here is a typical example:. Valid dates should be in the range to , for the epoch and to , for the epoch. As with Excel, dates outside these ranges will be written as a string. The hyperlink is comprised of two elements: the visible label and the invisible link. The visible label is the same as the link unless an alternative label is specified. The label is written using the write method. Therefore it is possible to write strings, numbers or formulas as labels.

There are two local URIs supported: internal: and external:. These are used for hyperlinks to internal worksheet references or external workbook and worksheet references:. Worksheet references are typically of the form Sheet1! You can also refer to a worksheet range using the standard Excel notation: Sheet1! In external links the workbook and worksheet name must be separated by the character: external:Workbook. xls Sheet1! You can also link to a named range in the target worksheet.

xls you could link to it as follows:. Excel requires that worksheet names containing spaces or non alphanumeric characters are single quoted as follows 'Sales Data'! Links to network files are also supported. If you are using double quote strings then you should be careful to escape anything that looks like a metacharacter.

Finally, you can avoid most of these quoting problems by using forward slashes. These are translated internally to backslashes:. The main difference is that you can specify a link for a range of cells:. This method is generally only required when used in conjunction with merged cells. However, they are applied only to the first cell in the range. For more information about writing Excel formulas see "FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS IN EXCEL".

If required, it is also possible to specify the calculated value of the formula. This is occasionally necessary when working with non-Excel applications that don't calculate the value of the formula. However, this probably isn't something that will ever need to do.

If you do use this feature then do so with care. See "Improving performance when working with formulas" in "FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS IN EXCEL". However, in practice it will be used less frequently. In the above example the substitution is always made against the original token, A1 , which doesn't change. However, each substitution is made only once:. The qr operator is explained in the perlop man page. Care should be taken with the values that are substituted. In particular you should avoid substituting a single 0, 1, 2 or 3.

You should also be careful to avoid false matches. However it contains a bug. Another similar problem occurs due to the fact that substitutions are made in order.

If you think that you have a problem related to a false match you can check the tokens that you are substituting against as follows. See also the repeat. A cell comment is indicated in Excel by a small red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of the cell.

Moving the cursor over the red triangle will reveal the comment. Most of these options are quite specific and in general the default comment behaviour will be all that you need. However, should you need greater control over the format of the cell comment the following options are available:. If you wish to use Unicode characters in the comment string then the preferred method is to use perl 5.

This option is used to indicate who the author of the comment is. Excel displays the author of the comment in the status bar at the bottom of the worksheet. This is usually of interest in corporate environments where several people might review and provide comments to a workbook.

This option is used to make a cell comment visible when the worksheet is opened. The default behaviour in Excel is that comments are initially hidden.

However, it is also possible in Excel to make individual or all comments visible. In Spreadsheet::WriteExcel individual comments can be made visible as follows:. Alternatively, if all of the cell comments have been made visible you can hide individual comments:. This option is used to set the background colour of cell comment box. You can use one of the named colours recognised by Spreadsheet::WriteExcel or a colour index. See "COLOURS IN EXCEL". This option is used to set the cell in which the comment will appear.

By default Excel displays comments one cell to the right and one cell above the cell to which the comment relates. However, you can change this behaviour if you wish. In the following example the comment which would appear by default in cell D2 is moved to E2. This option is used to set the row in which the comment will appear. The row is zero indexed. This option is used to set the column in which the comment will appear.

The column is zero indexed. See also "ROW HEIGHTS AND WORKSHEET OBJECTS". This method is used to extend the Spreadsheet::WriteExcel write method to handle user defined data. However, it doesn't always act in exactly the way that you would like it to. In the these examples the qr operator is used to quote the regular expression strings, see perlop for more details. The method is used as follows. Then if you call write with an appropriate string it will be handled automatically:.

The callback function will receive a reference to the calling worksheet and all of the other arguments that were passed to write. So for example if you wished to apply the previous filter only to ID values that occur in the first column you could modify your callback function as follows:.

You may add more than one handler in which case they will be called in the order that they were added. This method can be used to insert a image into a worksheet. The image can be in PNG, JPEG or BMP format. The offset values are in pixels. The default width of a cell is 63 pixels.

The default height of a cell is 17 pixels. The pixels offsets can be calculated using the following relationships:. The offsets can be greater than the width or height of the underlying cell. This can be occasionally useful if you wish to align two or more images relative to the same cell.

See also the images. BMP images must be 24 bit, true colour, bitmaps. In general it is best to avoid BMP images since they aren't compressed. This method can be used to insert a Chart object into a worksheet. The easiest way to calculate the required scaling is to create a test chart worksheet with Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.

Then open the file, select the chart and drag the corner to get the required size. While holding down the mouse the scale of the resized chart is shown to the left of the formula bar.

This method can be used to insert a externally generated chart into a worksheet. The chart must first be extracted from an existing Excel file. The activate method is used to specify which worksheet is initially visible in a multi-sheet workbook:.

This is similar to the Excel VBA activate method. More than one worksheet can be selected via the select method, see below, however only one worksheet can be active. The select method is used to indicate that a worksheet is selected in a multi-sheet workbook:. A selected worksheet has its tab highlighted.

Selecting worksheets is a way of grouping them together so that, for example, several worksheets could be printed in one go. A worksheet that has been activated via the activate method will also appear as selected. You may wish to hide a worksheet in order to avoid confusing a user with intermediate data or calculations. A hidden worksheet can not be activated or selected so this method is mutually exclusive with the activate and select methods.

In addition, since the first worksheet will default to being the active worksheet, you cannot hide the first worksheet without activating another sheet:. The activate method determines which worksheet is initially selected.

However, if there are a large number of worksheets the selected worksheet may not appear on the screen. The protect method also has the effect of enabling a cell's locked and hidden properties if they have been set.

A "locked" cell cannot be edited. A "hidden" cell will display the results of a formula but not the formula itself. In Excel a cell's locked property is on by default. Note, the worksheet level password in Excel provides very weak protection. It does not encrypt your data in any way and it is very easy to deactivate.

Therefore, do not use the above method if you wish to protect sensitive data or calculations. For technical reasons this will never be supported by Spreadsheet::WriteExcel. This method can be used to specify which cell or cells are selected in a worksheet. It is also possible to specify a cell or a range using A1 notation. This method can be used to change the default properties of a row. If you wish to set the format without changing the height you can pass undef as the height parameter:.

For example. If you wish to define a row format in this way you should call the method before any calls to write. Calling it afterwards will overwrite any format that was previously specified. This can be used, for example, to hide intermediary steps in a complicated calculation:. Outlines are described in "OUTLINES AND GROUPING IN EXCEL". Adjacent rows with the same outline level are grouped together into a single outline. For a more complete example see the outline.

Excel allows up to 7 outline levels. This method can be used to change the default properties of a single column or a range of columns. It is also possible, and generally clearer, to specify a column range using the form of A1 notation used for columns.

The width corresponds to the column width value that is specified in Excel. It is approximately equal to the length of a string in the default font of Arial Unfortunately, there is no way to specify "AutoFit" for a column in the Excel file format.

This feature is only available at runtime from within Excel. If you wish to set the format without changing the width you can pass undef as the width parameter:. If you wish to define a column format in this way you should call the method before any calls to write. If you call it afterwards it won't have any effect. Adjacent columns with the same outline level are grouped together into a single outline. Setting this parameter to 0 will cause all outlines on the worksheet to be hidden. They can be unhidden in Excel by means of the "Show Outline Symbols" command button.

The default setting is 1 for visible outlines. The default setting is 1 for symbols to appear below the outline level bar. The default setting is 1 for symbols to appear to the right of the outline level bar.

This has no effect on a file generated by Spreadsheet::WriteExcel but it does have an effect on how the worksheet behaves after it is created. The default setting is 0 for "Automatic Styles" to be turned off. This method can be used to divide a worksheet into horizontal or vertical regions known as panes and to also "freeze" these panes so that the splitter bars are not visible. It should be noted that the split is specified at the top or left of a cell and that the method uses zero based indexing.

Therefore to freeze the first row of a worksheet it is necessary to specify the split at row 2 which is 1 as the zero-based index. This might lead you to think that you are using a 1 based index but this is not the case. They are used to specify the top-most or left-most visible row or column in the scrolling region of the panes.

For example to freeze the first row and to have the scrolling region begin at row twenty:. See also the panes. pl program in the examples directory of the distribution. This method can be used to divide a worksheet into horizontal or vertical regions known as panes.

However, the vertical and horizontal units are different from each other. They are used to specify the top-most or left-most visible row or column in the bottom-right pane.

The older name is still available for backwards compatibility. However, this only allows simple Excel5 style horizontal merging which Excel refers to as "center across selection". It is a fatal error to use a merged format in a non-merged cell. Instead you should use separate formats for merged and non-merged cells. This restriction will be removed in a future release. Therefore it will handle numbers, strings, formulas or urls as required.

In fact using it will exclude the use of any other horizontal alignment option. The full possibilities of this method are shown in the merge3. pl to merge6. pl programs in the examples directory of the distribution. The default zoom factor is You cannot zoom to "Selection" because it is calculated by Excel at run-time. This is useful when creating Arabic, Hebrew or other near or far eastern worksheets that use right-to-left as the default direction.

This feature is only available in Excel and later. You can use one of the standard colour names provided by the Format object or a colour index. This method allows an autofilter to be added to a worksheet.

An autofilter is a way of adding drop down lists to the headers of a 2D range of worksheet data. This in turn allow users to filter the data based on simple criteria so that some data is shown and some is hidden. See the autofilter. pl program in the examples directory of the distro for a more detailed example. NOTE: It isn't sufficient to just specify the filter condition. You must also hide any rows that don't match the filter condition. Spreadsheet::WriteExcel cannot do this automatically since it isn't part of the file format.

pl program in the examples directory of the distro for an example. The operator synonyms are just syntactic sugar to make you more comfortable using the expressions. It is important to remember that the expressions will be interpreted by Excel and not by perl. An expression can comprise a single statement or two statements separated by the and and or operators.

Filtering of blank or non-blank data can be achieved by using a value of Blanks or NonBlanks in the expression:. to match any single character or number. No other regular expression quantifier is supported by Excel's filters. Excel's regular expression characters can be escaped using ~. The placeholder variable x in the above examples can be replaced by any simple string.

The actual placeholder name is ignored internally so the following are all equivalent:. Also, note that a filter condition can only be applied to a column in a range specified by the autofilter Worksheet method.

Page set-up methods affect the way that a worksheet looks when it is printed. They control features such as page headers and footers and margins. These methods are really just standard worksheet methods.

They are documented here in a separate section for the sake of clarity. A common requirement when working with Spreadsheet::WriteExcel is to apply the same page set-up features to all of the worksheets in a workbook. To do this you can use the sheets method of the workbook class to access the array of worksheets in a workbook:. This method is used to set the orientation of a worksheet's printed page to portrait.

The default worksheet orientation is portrait, so you won't generally need to call this method. This method is used to display the worksheet in "Page View" mode.

This is currently only supported by Mac Excel, where it is the default. This method is used to set the paper format for the printed output of a worksheet. The following paper styles are available:. Note, it is likely that not all of these paper types will be available to the end user since it will depend on the paper formats that the user's printer supports. Therefore, it is best to stick to standard paper types. If you do not specify a paper type the worksheet will print using the printer's default paper.

All of these methods take a distance in inches as a parameter. The default top and bottom margin is 1. For simple text, if you do not specify any justification the text will be centred. The information control characters act as variables that Excel will update as the workbook or worksheet changes. Times and dates are in the users default format:. It is possible to combine all of these features together to create sophisticated headers and footers.

As an aid to setting up complicated headers and footers you can record a page set-up as a macro in Excel and look at the format strings that VBA produces. Remember however that VBA uses two double quotes "" to indicate a single double quote. For the last example above the equivalent VBA code looks like this:.

As stated above the margin parameter is optional. As with the other margins the value should be in inches. The default header and footer margin is 0. The header and footer margin size can be set as follows:. Note, the header or footer string must be less than characters. Strings longer than this will not be written and a warning will be generated. See, also the headers. For large Excel documents it is often desirable to have the first row or rows of the worksheet print out at the top of each page.

For large Excel documents it is often desirable to have the first column or columns of the worksheet print out at the left hand side of each page. You can also specify the columns using A1 column notation, see the note about "Cell notation".

This method is used to hide the gridlines on the screen and printed page. Gridlines are the lines that divide the cells on a worksheet. Screen and printed gridlines are turned on by default in an Excel worksheet.

If you have defined your own cell borders you may wish to hide the default gridlines. If you don't supply an argument or use undef the default option is 1, i. only the printed gridlines are hidden. The headers are the letters and numbers at the top and the left of the worksheet. Since these headers serve mainly as a indication of position on the worksheet they generally do not appear on the printed page.

This method is used to specify the area of the worksheet that will be printed. All four parameters must be specified. You can also use A1 notation, see the note about "Cell notation". This is referred to by Excel as the sheet "page order".

The default page order is shown below for a worksheet that extends over 4 pages. The order is called "down then across":. If the printed area exceeds the specified number of pages it will be scaled down to fit. This guarantees that the printed area will always appear on the specified number of pages even if the page size or margins change. A common requirement is to fit the printed output to n pages wide but have the height be as long as necessary.

The last method call made will set the active option. The default value is 1. Set the scale factor of the printed page. The default scale factor is Add horizontal page breaks to a worksheet. A page break causes all the data that follows it to be printed on the next page. Horizontal page breaks act between rows. To create a page break between rows 20 and 21 you must specify the break at row However in zero index notation this is actually row So you can pretend for a small while that you are using 1 index notation:.

There is a silent limitation of about horizontal page breaks per worksheet in line with an Excel internal limitation. Add vertical page breaks to a worksheet. Vertical page breaks act between columns.

To create a page break between columns 20 and 21 you must specify the break at column However in zero index notation this is actually column This section describes the methods and properties that are available for formatting cells in Excel. The properties of a cell that can be formatted include: fonts, colours, patterns, borders, alignment and number formatting.

Cell formatting is defined through a Format object. The format object holds all the formatting properties that can be applied to a cell, a row or a column. The process of setting these properties is discussed in the next section. Once a Format object has been constructed and its properties have been set it can be passed as an argument to the worksheet write methods as follows:.

The following table shows the Excel format categories, the formatting properties that can be applied and the equivalent object method:. There are two ways of setting Format properties: by using the object method interface or by setting the property directly.

For example, a typical use of the method interface would be as follows:. By comparison the properties can be set directly by passing a hash of properties to the Format constructor:. You can also store the properties in one or more named hashes and pass them to the required method:. The provision of two ways of setting properties might lead you to wonder which is the best way.

The method mechanism may be better is you prefer setting properties via method calls which the author did when the code was first written otherwise passing properties to the constructor has proved to be a little more flexible and self documenting in practice.

An additional advantage of working with property hashes is that it allows you to share formatting between workbook objects as shown in the example above. Each unique format in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel must have a corresponding Format object. It isn't possible to use a Format with a write method and then redefine the Format for use at a later stage. This is because a Format is applied to a cell not in its current state but in its final state. Consider the following example:.

However, the colour is subsequently set to green. When Excel displays Cell A1 it will display the final state of the Format which in this case will be the colour green. The Format object methods are described in more detail in the following sections. In addition, there is a Perl program called formats. pl in the examples directory of the WriteExcel distribution. This program creates an Excel workbook called formats. xls which contains examples of almost all the format types.

The above methods can also be applied directly as properties. However, this method is here mainly for legacy reasons. It is preferable to set the properties in the format constructor:. Excel can only display fonts that are installed on the system that it is running on. Therefore it is best to use the fonts that come as standard such as 'Arial', 'Times New Roman' and 'Courier New'.

See also the Fonts worksheet created by formats. Set the font size. Excel adjusts the height of a row to accommodate the largest font size in the row. For additional examples see the 'Named colors' and 'Standard colors' worksheets created by formats.

pl in the examples directory. It is probably best to set the value to 1 and use normal bold. This method is used to define the numerical format of a number in Excel.

It controls whether a number is displayed as an integer, a floating point number, a date, a currency value or some other user defined format. The numerical format of a cell can be specified by using a format string or an index to one of Excel's built-in formats:. The number system used for dates is described in "DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL". Alternatively you can specify the colour based on a colour index as follows: [Color n] , where n is a standard Excel colour index - 7.

See the 'Standard colors' worksheet created by formats. For examples of these formatting codes see the 'Numerical formats' worksheet created by formats. html documents in the docs directory of the distro. Note 1. Numeric formats 23 to 36 are not documented by Microsoft and may differ in international versions. Note 2. In Excel 5 the dollar sign appears as a dollar sign.

In Excel it appears as the defined local currency symbol. Note 3. The red negative numeric formats display slightly differently in Excel 5 and Excel This property can be used to prevent modification of a cells contents. Following Excel's convention, cell locking is turned on by default. However, it only has an effect if the worksheet has been protected, see the worksheet protect method.

Note: This offers weak protection even with a password, see the note in relation to the protect method. This property is used to hide a formula while still displaying its result. This is generally used to hide complex calculations from end users who are only interested in the result. It only has an effect if the worksheet has been protected, see the worksheet protect method.

This method is used to set the horizontal and vertical text alignment within a cell. Vertical and horizontal alignments can be combined. The method is used as follows:. The vjustify vertical justify option can be used to provide automatic text wrapping in a cell. The height of the cell will be adjusted to accommodate the wrapped text. See also the merge1. Excel will adjust the height of the row to accommodate the wrapped text.

See the textwrap. pl program in the examples directory. Set the rotation of the text in a cell. The rotation can be any angle in the range to 90 degrees. This method can be used to indent text.

The argument, which should be an integer, is taken as the level of indentation:. Indentation is a horizontal alignment property. It will override any other horizontal properties but it can be used in conjunction with vertical properties. Examples of the available patterns are shown in the 'Patterns' worksheet created by formats.

However, it is unlikely that you will ever need anything other than Pattern 1 which is a solid fill of the background color. If a pattern hasn't been defined then a solid fill pattern is used as the default. A cell border is comprised of a border on the bottom, top, left and right. Examples of the available border styles are shown in the 'Borders' worksheet created by formats.

Set the colour of the cell borders. Examples of the border styles and colours are shown in the 'Borders' worksheet created by formats. The copy method is only useful if you are using the method interface to Format properties. It generally isn't required if you are setting Format properties directly using hashes. The following is a brief introduction to handling Unicode in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.

For a more general introduction to Unicode handling in Perl see perlunitut and perluniintro. When using Spreadsheet::WriteExcel the best and easiest way to write unicode strings to an Excel file is to use UTF-8 encoded strings and perl 5. Spreadsheet::WriteExcel also allows you to write unicode strings using older perls but it generally requires more work, as explained below.

Internally, Excel encodes unicode data as UTFLE where LE means little-endian. If you are using perl 5. No further intervention is required from the programmer, for example:. Spreadsheet::WriteExcel also lets you write unicode data as UTF Since the majority of CPAN modules default to UTFBE big-endian Spreadsheet::WriteExcel also uses UTFBE and converts it internally to UTFLE :.

Although the above examples look similar there is an important difference. With uft8 and perl 5. However, with UTF16 data we need to distinguish it from other strings either by calling a separate function or by passing an additional flag to indicate the data type. If you are dealing with non-ASCII characters that aren't in UTF-8 then perl 5.

Alternatively you can read data from an encoded file and convert it to UTF-8 as you read it in:. These methodologies are explained in more detail in perlunitut , perluniintro and perlunicode. Excel provides a colour palette of 56 colours. In Spreadsheet::WriteExcel these colours are accessed via their palette index in the range This index is used to set the colour of fonts, cell patterns and cell borders. The most commonly used colours can also be accessed by name. The name acts as a simple alias for the colour index:.

Users of VBA in Excel should note that the equivalent colour indices are in the range If the default palette does not provide a required colour you can override one of the built-in values. The default Excel colour palette is shown in palette. html in the docs directory of the distro.

You can generate an Excel version of the palette using colors. These two points are explained in more detail below along with some suggestions on how to convert times and dates to the required format.

Dates and times in Excel are represented by real numbers, for example "Jan 1 AM" is represented by the number The integer part of the number stores the number of days since the epoch and the fractional part stores the percentage of the day. A date or time in Excel is just like any other number.

To have the number display as a date you must apply an Excel number format to it. Here are some examples. Spreadsheet::WriteExcel doesn't automatically convert input date strings into Excel's formatted date numbers due to the large number of possible date formats and also due to the possibility of misinterpretation.

Therefore, in order to handle dates you will have to convert them to numbers and apply an Excel format. Some methods for converting dates are listed in the next section. The most direct way is to convert your dates to the ISO yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.

Excel allows you to group rows or columns so that they can be hidden or displayed with a single mouse click. This feature is referred to as outlines. This feature is best viewed in Excel but the following is an ASCII representation of what a worksheet with three outlines might look like. Rows and rows are grouped at level 2. Rows are grouped at level 1. The lines at the left hand side are called outline level bars.

Clicking the minus sign on each of the level 2 outlines will collapse and hide the data as shown in the next figure. The minus sign changes to a plus sign to indicate that the data in the outline is hidden. The following example sets an outline level of 1 for rows 1 and 2 zero-indexed and columns B to G.

org and Gnumeric. Data validation is a feature of Excel which allows you to restrict the data that a users enters in a cell and to display help and warning messages. It also allows you to restrict input to values in a drop down list. A typical use case might be to restrict data in a cell to integer values in a certain range, to provide a help message to indicate the required value and to issue a warning if the input data doesn't meet the stated criteria.

In Spreadsheet::WriteExcel we could do that as follows:. It can be applied to a single cell or a range of cells. You can also use A1 style notation. See also the note about "Cell notation" for more information. The allowable parameters are:. These parameters are explained in the following sections. Most of the parameters are optional, however, you will generally require the three main options validate , criteria and value.

The validate parameter is used to set the type of data that you wish to validate. It is always required and it has no default value. Allowable values are:. any is used to specify that the type of data is unrestricted. This is the same as not applying a data validation.

It is only provided for completeness and isn't used very often in the context of Spreadsheet::WriteExcel. integer restricts the cell to integer values. Excel refers to this as 'whole number'. list restricts the cell to a set of user specified values. These can be passed in an array ref or as a cell range named ranges aren't currently supported :. date restricts the cell to date values. See also "DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL" for more information about working with Excel's dates. time restricts the cell to time values.

See also "DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL" for more information about working with Excel's times. length restricts the cell data based on an integer string length. Excel refers to this as 'Text length'. The criteria parameter is used to set the criteria by which the data in the cell is validated.

It is almost always required except for the list and custom validate options. It has no default value. You can either use Excel's textual description strings, in the first column above, or the more common operator alternatives.

The following are equivalent:. The list and custom validate options don't require a criteria. If you specify one it will be ignored. The value parameter is used to set the limiting value to which the criteria is applied. You can also use the synonyms minimum or source to make the validation a little clearer and closer to Excel's description of the parameter:. The maximum parameter is used to set the upper limiting value when the criteria is either 'between' or 'not between' :.

When the option is on the data validation is not applied to blank data in the cell. It is on by default. The dropdown parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'In-cell dropdown' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is on a dropdown list will be shown for list validations.

It has no default value and is only displayed if the input message is displayed. The maximum title length is 32 characters. UTF8 strings are handled automatically in perl 5. The maximum message length is characters. The default error title is 'Microsoft Excel'. The default error message is "The value you entered is not valid.

There are 3 options:. Example 2. Limiting input to an integer greater than a fixed value where the value is referenced from a cell. Example 5. Limiting input to a value in a dropdown list where the list is specified as a cell range. If you specify the height of a row that contains a worksheet object then Spreadsheet::WriteExcel will adjust the height of the object to maintain its default or user specified dimensions.

In this way the object won't appear stretched or compressed in Excel. However, Excel can also adjust the height of a row automatically if it contains cells that have the text wrap property set or contain large fonts.

In these cases the height of the row is unknown to Spreadsheet::WriteExcel at execution time and the scaling calculations it performs are incorrect. The effect of this is that the object is stretched with the row when it is displayed in Excel. The first thing to note is that there are still some outstanding issues with the implementation of formulas and functions:.

However, these constraints will be removed in future versions. They are here because of a trade-off between features and time. The following is a brief introduction to formulas and functions in Excel and Spreadsheet::WriteExcel. The formula can contain numbers, strings, boolean values, cell references, cell ranges and functions. Named ranges are not supported.

Formulas should be written as they appear in Excel, that is cells and functions must be in uppercase. Cells in Excel are referenced using the A1 notation system where the column is designated by a letter and the row by a number. Columns range from A to IV i. This allows you to specify whether a row or column is relative or absolute. This only has an effect if the cell is copied. The following examples show relative and absolute values. The sheet reference and the cell reference are separated by!

the exclamation mark symbol. If worksheet names contain spaces, commas or parentheses then Excel requires that the name is enclosed in single quotes as shown in the last two examples above. In order to avoid using a lot of escape characters you can use the quote operator q{} to protect the quotes.

See perlop in the main Perl documentation. You cannot reference external workbooks. The following table lists the operators that are available in Excel's formulas. The majority of the operators are the same as Perl's, differences are indicated:.

The range and comma operators can have different symbols in non-English versions of Excel. These will be supported in a later version of Spreadsheet::WriteExcel. European users of Excel take note:. The following table lists all of the core functions supported by Excel 5 and Spreadsheet::WriteExcel. Any additional functions that are available through the "Analysis ToolPak" or other add-ins are not supported. These functions have all been tested to verify that they work.

You can also modify the module to support function names in the following languages: German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Finnish, Italian and Swedish. Writing a large number of formulas with Spreadsheet::WriteExcel can be slow.

This is due to the fact that each formula has to be parsed and with the current implementation this is computationally expensive. In this example the cell reference changes in iterations from A1 to A The parser treats this variable as a token and arranges it according to predefined rules.

However, since the parser is oblivious to the value of the token, it is essentially performing the same calculation times.

This is inefficient. The way to avoid this inefficiency and thereby speed up the writing of formulas is to parse the formula once and then repeatedly substitute similar tokens. On an arbitrary test machine this method was 10 times faster than the brute force method shown above.

For more information about how Spreadsheet::WriteExcel parses and stores formulas see the Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Formula man page. It should be noted however that the overall speed of direct formula parsing will be improved in a future version. See Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Examples for a full list of examples. The following is a general example which demonstrates some features of working with multiple worksheets. This example shows how to use a conditional numerical format with colours to indicate if a share price has gone up or down.

The following example converts a tab separated file called tab. txt into an Excel file called tab. NOTE: This is a simple conversion program for illustrative purposes only.

For converting a CSV or Tab separated or any other type of delimited text file to Excel I recommend the more rigorous csv2xls program that is part of H. The following is a description of the example files that are provided in the standard Spreadsheet::WriteExcel distribution.

They demonstrate the different features and options of the module. See Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Examples for more details. The minimum file size is 6K due to the OLE overhead. The maximum file size is approximately 7MB bytes of BIFF data. pl example in the examples directory of the distro. Note, these aren't strict requirements. However, it is best to install them if possible and they will be installed automatically if you use a tool such as CPAN.

pm or ppm. See the INSTALL or install. Spreadsheet::WriteExcel will work on the majority of Windows, UNIX and Macintosh platforms.

Specifically, the module will work on any system where perl packs floats in the 64 bit IEEE format. The float must also be in little-endian format but it will be reversed if necessary. In general, if you don't know whether your system supports a 64 bit IEEE float or not, it probably does. The file cannot be opened for writing.

Download Summary:. KB MB GB. Total Size: 0. Back Next. Microsoft recommends you install a download manager. Microsoft Download Manager. Manage all your internet downloads with this easy-to-use manager. It features a simple interface with many customizable options:. Download multiple files at one time Download large files quickly and reliably Suspend active downloads and resume downloads that have failed. Yes, install Microsoft Download Manager recommended No, thanks.

What happens if I don't install a download manager? Why should I install the Microsoft Download Manager? if you do not have a download manager installed, and still want to download the file s you've chosen, please note: You may not be able to download multiple files at the same time. In this case, you will have to download the files individually.

You would have the opportunity to download individual files on the "Thank you for downloading" page after completing your download. Files larger than 1 GB may take much longer to download and might not download correctly. You might not be able to pause the active downloads or resume downloads that have failed. The content you requested has already been retired. It is available to download on this page.

Details Note: There are multiple files available for this download. Once you click on the "Download" button, you will be prompted to select the files you need. File Name:. Date Published:. File Size:. System Requirements Supported Operating System. Install Instructions The download is a pdf file. To start the download, click Download.

To write a string, a formatted string, a number and a formula to the first worksheet in an Excel workbook called perl. The Spreadsheet::WriteExcel Perl module can be used to create a cross-platform Excel binary file. Multiple worksheets can be added to a workbook and formatting can be applied to cells. Text, numbers, formulas, hyperlinks, images and charts can be written to the cells.

The module will work on the majority of Windows, UNIX and Mac platforms. This module cannot be used to write to an existing Excel file See "MODIFYING AND REWRITING EXCEL FILES". Note: This module is in maintenance only mode and in future will only be updated with bug fixes. The newer, more feature rich and API compatible Excel::Writer::XLSX module is recommended instead. See, "Migrating to Excel::Writer::XLSX". Spreadsheet::WriteExcel tries to provide an interface to as many of Excel's features as possible.

As a result there is a lot of documentation to accompany the interface and it can be difficult at first glance to see what it important and what is not. So for those of you who prefer to assemble Ikea furniture first and then read the instructions, here are three easy steps:. This will create an Excel file called perl. xls with a single worksheet and the text 'Hi Excel!

And that's it. Okay, so there is actually a zeroth step as well, but use module goes without saying. There are also more than 80 examples that come with the distribution and which you can use to get you started. See "EXAMPLES". Those of you who read the instructions first and assemble the furniture afterwards will know how to proceed.

The Spreadsheet::WriteExcel module provides an object oriented interface to a new Excel workbook. The following methods are available through a new workbook.

If you are unfamiliar with object oriented interfaces or the way that they are implemented in Perl have a look at perlobj and perltoot in the main Perl documentation. A new Excel workbook is created using the new constructor which accepts either a filename or a filehandle as a parameter.

The following example creates a new Excel file based on a filename:. The new constructor returns a Spreadsheet::WriteExcel object that you can use to add worksheets and store data. It should be noted that although my is not specifically required it defines the scope of the new workbook variable and, in the majority of cases, ensures that the workbook is closed properly without explicitly calling the close method.

If the file cannot be created, due to file permissions or some other reason, new will return undef. Therefore, it is good practice to check the return value of new before proceeding. will be set if there is a file creation error.

You can also pass a valid filehandle to the new constructor. For example in a CGI program you could do something like this:. pl programs in the examples directory of the distro. Filehandles can also be useful if you want to stream an Excel file over a socket or if you want to store an Excel file in a scalar. pl and filehandle.

Note about the requirement for binmode. An Excel file is comprised of binary data. Therefore, if you are using a filehandle you should ensure that you binmode it prior to passing it to new. You should do this regardless of whether you are on a Windows platform or not.

This applies especially to users of perl 5. If your program, either intentionally or not, writes UTF-8 data to a filehandle that is passed to new it will corrupt the Excel file that is created.

You don't have to worry about binmode if you are using filenames instead of filehandles. Spreadsheet::WriteExcel performs the binmode internally when it converts the filename to a filehandle.

For more information about binmode see perlfunc and perlopentut in the main Perl documentation. At least one worksheet should be added to a new workbook. A worksheet is used to write data into cells:. Sheet1, Sheet2, etc. The worksheet name must be a valid Excel worksheet name, i. On systems with perl 5. On earlier Perl systems your can specify UTFBE worksheet names using an additional optional parameter:. You can either define the properties at creation time via a hash of property values or later via method calls.

Set the name for the chart sheet. The name property is optional and if it isn't supplied will default to Chart The name must be a valid Excel worksheet name. The name property can be omitted for embedded charts. It is an error to try insert a Chart that doesn't have this flag set.

See Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Chart for details on how to configure the chart object once it is created. txt or. In general your Excel file will be closed automatically when your program ends or when the Workbook object goes out of scope, however the close method can be used to explicitly close an Excel file. An explicit close is required if the file must be closed prior to performing some external action on it such as copying it, reading its size or attaching it to an email.

In addition, close may be required to prevent perl's garbage collector from disposing of the Workbook, Worksheet and Format objects in the wrong order. Situations where this can occur are:. If my was not used to declare the scope of a workbook variable created using new. The reason for this is that Spreadsheet::WriteExcel relies on Perl's DESTROY mechanism to trigger destructor methods in a specific sequence. This may not happen in cases where the Workbook, Worksheet and Format variables are not lexically scoped or where they have different lexical scopes.

In general, if you create a file with a size of 0 bytes or you fail to create a file you need to call close.

The return value of close is the same as that returned by perl when it closes the file created by new. This allows you to handle error conditions in the usual way:.

This method is used to improve compatibility with third party applications that read Excel files. An Excel file is comprised of binary records that describe properties of a spreadsheet. Excel is reasonably liberal about this and, outside of a core subset, it doesn't require every possible record to be present when it reads a file. This is also true of Gnumeric and OpenOffice. Org Calc. Spreadsheet::WriteExcel takes advantage of this fact to omit some records in order to minimise the amount of data stored in memory and to simplify and speed up the writing of files.

However, some third party applications that read Excel files often expect certain records to be present. In "compatibility mode" Spreadsheet::WriteExcel writes these records and tries to be as close to an Excel generated file as possible. In perl 5. See "UNICODE IN EXCEL". Usually Spreadsheet::WriteExcel allows you to use UTF with pre 5.

However, document properties don't support UTF for these type of strings. In order to promote the usefulness of Perl and the Spreadsheet::WriteExcel module consider adding a comment such as the following when using document properties:. However, this also means that the resulting OLE document may possibly be buggy for files less than 7MB since it hasn't been as rigorously tested in that domain. This is being investigated. If you encounter any problems with this features let me know. This method is used to defined a name that can be used to represent a value, a single cell or a range of cells in a workbook.

For speed and efficiency Spreadsheet::WriteExcel stores worksheet data in temporary files prior to assembling the final workbook. If Spreadsheet::WriteExcel is unable to create these temporary files it will store the required data in memory. This can be slow for large files. The problem occurs mainly with IIS on Windows although it could feasibly occur on Unix systems as well. To check if this might be a problem on a particular system you can run a simple test program with -w or use warnings.

This will generate a warning if the module cannot create the required temporary files:. The File::Temp module is used to create the temporary files. You can find out which directory is used on your system as follows:. Even if the default temporary file directory is accessible you may wish to specify an alternative location for security or maintenance reasons:. This means that a single program running on one of these systems will be limited to creating a total of workbook and worksheet objects.

You can run multiple, non-concurrent programs to work around this if necessary. A new colour is set using its RGB red green blue components. The sheets method returns a list, or a sliced list, of the worksheets in a workbook.

If no arguments are passed the method returns a list of all the worksheets in the workbook. This is useful if you want to repeat an operation on each worksheet:.

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WebPress CONTROL+OPTION+RETURN to insert the line break. To start a new line of text or add spacing between lines or paragraphs of text in a worksheet cell, press Alt+Enter to insert a line break. Double-click the cell in which you want to insert a line break (or select the cell and then press F2) Web16/12/ · Use on SQL Server bit editions for Excel files (or later) or on SQL Server bit editions for any Excel files. The second OPENROWSET argument defines the provider string delimited by a semi-colon with the first part specifying the file type: For Excel ’ .xls) files, use Excel Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional WebIf you wish to use Unicode characters in the comment string then the preferred method is to use perl and UTF-8 strings, see "UNICODE IN EXCEL". Option: author. This option is used to indicate who the author of the comment is. Excel displays the author of the comment in the status bar at the bottom of the worksheet WebRésidence officielle des rois de France, le château de Versailles et ses jardins comptent parmi les plus illustres monuments du patrimoine mondial et constituent la plus complète réalisation de l’art français du XVIIe siècle Web21/10/ · A footnote in Microsoft's submission to the UK's Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has let slip the reason behind Call of Duty's absence from the Xbox Game Pass library: Sony and ... read more

December 1, Speaker Series on California's Future — Virtual Event. xls' cannot be accessed. Step 2. See, also the headers. Fewer than half of likely voters say the vote outcome of Propositions 26, 27, or 30 is very important to them. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, pl Example of copying a cell format.

This is a Perl interface to OLE file formats. This is also the default used by Excel for Windows. November 18, Annual Water Conference — In-Person and Online. To check if this might be a problem on a particular system you can run a simple test program with -w or use warnings. pl Example of extending the write method. pl An advanced example of merging with formatting.