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The default form widget for this field is a TextInput. CharField has the following extra arguments:. The maximum length in characters of the field. Refer to the database backend notes for details. Collation names are not standardized.

As such, this will not be portable across multiple database backends. A date, represented in Python by a datetime. date instance. Has a few extra, optional arguments:.

Automatically set the field to now every time the object is saved. The field is only automatically updated when calling Model. update , though you can specify a custom value for the field in an update like that. Automatically set the field to now when the object is first created. Useful for creation of timestamps.

So even if you set a value for this field when creating the object, it will be ignored. The default form widget for this field is a DateInput. Any combination of these options will result in an error. A date and time, represented in Python by a datetime. datetime instance. Takes the same extra arguments as DateField. The default form widget for this field is a single DateTimeInput. The admin uses two separate TextInput widgets with JavaScript shortcuts.

A fixed-precision decimal number, represented in Python by a Decimal instance. It validates the input using DecimalValidator. The maximum number of digits allowed in the number. For example, to store numbers up to The default form widget for this field is a NumberInput when localize is False or TextInput otherwise. For more information about the differences between the FloatField and DecimalField classes, please see FloatField vs.

You should also be aware of SQLite limitations of decimal fields. A field for storing periods of time - modeled in Python by timedelta. When used on PostgreSQL, the data type used is an interval and on Oracle the data type is INTERVAL DAY 9 TO SECOND 6. Otherwise a bigint of microseconds is used. Arithmetic with DurationField works in most cases. However on all databases other than PostgreSQL, comparing the value of a DurationField to arithmetic on DateTimeField instances will not work as expected.

A CharField that checks that the value is a valid email address using EmailValidator. This attribute provides a way of setting the upload directory and file name, and can be set in two ways. In both cases, the value is passed to the Storage. save method. This will be called to obtain the upload path, including the filename. This callable must accept two arguments and return a Unix-style path with forward slashes to be passed along to the storage system.

The two arguments are:. An instance of the model where the FileField is defined. More specifically, this is the particular instance where the current file is being attached. In most cases, this object will not have been saved to the database yet, so if it uses the default AutoField , it might not yet have a value for its primary key field. A storage object, or a callable which returns a storage object. This handles the storage and retrieval of your files.

See Managing files for details on how to provide this object. The default form widget for this field is a ClearableFileInput. Using a FileField or an ImageField see below in a model takes a few steps:. If you upload a file on Jan. The file is saved as part of saving the model in the database, so the actual file name used on disk cannot be relied on until after the model has been saved. Internally, this calls the url method of the underlying Storage class.

Also note that even an uploaded HTML file, since it can be executed by the browser though not by the server , can pose security threats that are equivalent to XSS or CSRF attacks. FileField instances are created in your database as varchar columns with a default max length of characters.

When you access a FileField on a model, you are given an instance of FieldFile as a proxy for accessing the underlying file. Instead, it is a wrapper around the result of the Storage.

In addition to the API inherited from File such as read and write , FieldFile includes several methods that can be used to interact with the underlying file:. Two methods of this class, save and delete , default to saving the model object of the associated FieldFile in the database. The name of the file including the relative path from the root of the Storage of the associated FileField. The result of the underlying Storage. size method. Opens or reopens the file associated with this instance in the specified mode.

Since the underlying file is opened implicitly when accessing it, it may be unnecessary to call this method except to reset the pointer to the underlying file or to change the mode.

Behaves like the standard Python file. close method and closes the file associated with this instance. This method takes a filename and file contents and passes them to the storage class for the field, then associates the stored file with the model field. If you want to manually associate file data with FileField instances on your model, the save method is used to persist that file data.

The optional save argument controls whether or not the model instance is saved after the file associated with this field has been altered.

Defaults to True. Note that the content argument should be an instance of django. You can construct a File from an existing Python file object like this:. For more information, see Managing files.

Deletes the file associated with this instance and clears all attributes on the field. Note: This method will close the file if it happens to be open when delete is called. The optional save argument controls whether or not the model instance is saved after the file associated with this field has been deleted. Note that when a model is deleted, related files are not deleted. A CharField whose choices are limited to the filenames in a certain directory on the filesystem. Has some special arguments, of which the first is required :.

The absolute filesystem path to a directory from which this FilePathField should get its choices. path may also be a callable, such as a function to dynamically set the path at runtime.

A regular expression, as a string, that FilePathField will use to filter filenames. Note that the regex will be applied to the base filename, not the full path. Example: "foo. txt but not bar. txt or foo Either True or False. Specifies whether all subdirectories of path should be included.

Specifies whether files in the specified location should be included. Specifies whether folders in the specified location should be included. The one potential gotcha is that match applies to the base filename, not the full path.

So, this example:. png because the match applies to the base filename foo. png and bar. FilePathField instances are created in your database as varchar columns with a default max length of characters. A floating-point number represented in Python by a float instance. FloatField vs. The FloatField class is sometimes mixed up with the DecimalField class. Although they both represent real numbers, they represent those numbers differently. An IPv4 or IPv6 address, in string format e.

The IPv6 address normalization follows RFC section For example, would be normalized to , and ::ffff:0a0a:0a0a to ::ffff All characters are converted to lowercase.

Limits valid inputs to the specified protocol. Accepted values are 'both' default , 'IPv4' or 'IPv6'. Matching is case insensitive. Unpacks IPv4 mapped addresses like ::ffff If this option is enabled that address would be unpacked to Default is disabled. Can only be used when protocol is set to 'both'. If you allow for blank values, you have to allow for null values since blank values are stored as null.

Inherits all attributes and methods from FileField , but also validates that the uploaded object is a valid image. In addition to the special attributes that are available for FileField , an ImageField also has height and width attributes. To facilitate querying on those attributes, ImageField has the following optional arguments:.

Name of a model field which will be auto-populated with the height of the image each time the model instance is saved. Name of a model field which will be auto-populated with the width of the image each time the model instance is saved. Requires the Pillow library. ImageField instances are created in your database as varchar columns with a default max length of characters.

An integer. Values from to are safe in all databases supported by Django. It uses MinValueValidator and MaxValueValidator to validate the input based on the values that the default database supports. A field for storing JSON encoded data. In Python the data is represented in its Python native format: dictionaries, lists, strings, numbers, booleans and None.

JSONField is supported on MariaDB, MySQL 5. An optional json. JSONEncoder subclass to serialize data types not supported by the standard JSON serializer e.

datetime or UUID. For example, you can use the DjangoJSONEncoder class. Defaults to json. JSONDecoder subclass to deserialize the value retrieved from the database.

The value will be in the format chosen by the custom encoder most often a string. For example, you run the risk of returning a datetime that was actually a string that just happened to be in the same format chosen for datetime s.

To query JSONField in the database, see Querying JSONField. Index and Field. On PostgreSQL only, you can use GinIndex that is better suited. PostgreSQL has two native JSON based data types: json and jsonb. The main difference between them is how they are stored and how they can be queried. The jsonb field is stored based on the actual structure of the JSON which allows indexing. The trade-off is a small additional cost on writing to the jsonb field. JSONField uses jsonb.

Oracle Database does not support storing JSON scalar values. Only JSON objects and arrays represented in Python using dict and list are supported. Like a PositiveIntegerField , but only allows values under a certain database-dependent point.

Values from 0 to are safe in all databases supported by Django. Like an IntegerField , but must be either positive or zero 0. The value 0 is accepted for backward compatibility reasons.

Slug is a newspaper term. A slug is a short label for something, containing only letters, numbers, underscores or hyphens. Implies setting Field. It is often useful to automatically prepopulate a SlugField based on the value of some other value. If True , the field accepts Unicode letters in addition to ASCII letters. Defaults to False. Like an AutoField , but only allows values under a certain database-dependent limit.

Values from 1 to are safe in all databases supported by Django. Like an IntegerField , but only allows values under a certain database-dependent point. A large text field. The default form widget for this field is a Textarea.

However it is not enforced at the model or database level. Use a CharField for that. Oracle does not support collations for a TextField. A time, represented in Python by a datetime. time instance. Accepts the same auto-population options as DateField. The default form widget for this field is a TimeInput. The admin adds some JavaScript shortcuts. A CharField for a URL, validated by URLValidator. The default form widget for this field is a URLInput. A field for storing universally unique identifiers.

When used on PostgreSQL, this stores in a uuid datatype, otherwise in a char The database will not generate the UUID for you, so it is recommended to use default :. Note that a callable with the parentheses omitted is passed to default , not an instance of UUID.

A many-to-one relationship. To create a recursive relationship — an object that has a many-to-one relationship with itself — use models. If you need to create a relationship on a model that has not yet been defined, you can use the name of the model, rather than the model object itself:. To refer to models defined in another application, you can explicitly specify a model with the full application label.

This sort of reference, called a lazy relationship, can be useful when resolving circular import dependencies between two applications. A database index is automatically created on the ForeignKey. You may want to avoid the overhead of an index if you are creating a foreign key for consistency rather than joins, or if you will be creating an alternative index like a partial or multiple column index.

ForeignKey accepts other arguments that define the details of how the relation works. For example, if you have a nullable ForeignKey and you want it to be set null when the referenced object is deleted:.

Support for database-level cascade options may be implemented later. models :. Cascade deletes. Django emulates the behavior of the SQL constraint ON DELETE CASCADE and also deletes the object containing the ForeignKey.

Prevent deletion of the referenced object by raising ProtectedError , a subclass of django. Prevent deletion of the referenced object by raising RestrictedError a subclass of django.

Unlike PROTECT , deletion of the referenced object is allowed if it also references a different object that is being deleted in the same operation, but via a CASCADE relationship.

Artist can be deleted even if that implies deleting an Album which is referenced by a Song , because Song also references Artist itself through a cascading relationship. Set the ForeignKey null; this is only possible if null is True. Set the ForeignKey to its default value; a default for the ForeignKey must be set. Set the ForeignKey to the value passed to SET , or if a callable is passed in, the result of calling it.

In most cases, passing a callable will be necessary to avoid executing queries at the time your models. py is imported:. Take no action. If your database backend enforces referential integrity, this will cause an IntegrityError unless you manually add an SQL ON DELETE constraint to the database field.

Sets a limit to the available choices for this field when this field is rendered using a ModelForm or the admin by default, all objects in the queryset are available to choose. Either a dictionary, a Q object, or a callable returning a dictionary or Q object can be used. This may be helpful in the Django admin. The callable form can be helpful, for instance, when used in conjunction with the Python datetime module to limit selections by date range. It may also be invoked when a model is validated, for example by management commands or the admin.

The admin constructs querysets to validate its form inputs in various edge cases multiple times, so there is a possibility your callable may be invoked several times.

The name to use for the relation from the related object back to this one. See the related objects documentation for a full explanation and example. Note that you must set this value when defining relations on abstract models ; and when you do so some special syntax is available. The name to use for the reverse filter name from the target model. The field on the related object that the relation is to. By default, Django uses the primary key of the related object.

Controls whether or not a constraint should be created in the database for this foreign key. That said, here are some scenarios where you might want to do this:. If it is True - the default - then if the ForeignKey is pointing at a model which matches the current value of settings. You only want to override this to be False if you are sure your model should always point toward the swapped-in model - for example, if it is a profile model designed specifically for your custom user model.

If in doubt, leave it to its default of True. A many-to-many relationship. Requires a positional argument: the class to which the model is related, which works exactly the same as it does for ForeignKey , including recursive and lazy relationships. Behind the scenes, Django creates an intermediary join table to represent the many-to-many relationship. By default, this table name is generated using the name of the many-to-many field and the name of the table for the model that contains it.

ManyToManyField accepts an extra set of arguments — all optional — that control how the relationship functions. Same as ForeignKey. Instead, the ManyToManyField is assumed to be symmetrical — that is, if I am your friend, then you are my friend. If you do not want symmetry in many-to-many relationships with self , set symmetrical to False. This will force Django to add the descriptor for the reverse relationship, allowing ManyToManyField relationships to be non-symmetrical.

Django will automatically generate a table to manage many-to-many relationships. However, if you want to manually specify the intermediary table, you can use the through option to specify the Django model that represents the intermediate table that you want to use. The most common use for this option is when you want to associate extra data with a many-to-many relationship.

It has three fields to link the models. If the ManyToManyField points from and to the same model, the following fields are generated:. This class can be used to query associated records for a given model instance like a normal model:. Only used when a custom intermediary model is specified. Django will normally determine which fields of the intermediary model to use in order to establish a many-to-many relationship automatically. However, consider the following models:.

This also applies to recursive relationships when an intermediary model is used and there are more than two foreign keys to the model, or you want to explicitly specify which two Django should use.

The name of the table to create for storing the many-to-many data. If this is not provided, Django will assume a default name based upon the names of: the table for the model defining the relationship and the name of the field itself. Controls whether or not constraints should be created in the database for the foreign keys in the intermediary table. If it is True - the default - then if the ManyToManyField is pointing at a model which matches the current value of settings.

ManyToManyField does not support validators. null has no effect since there is no way to require a relationship at the database level. A one-to-one relationship. One positional argument is required: the class to which the model will be related. This works exactly the same as it does for ForeignKey , including all the options regarding recursive and lazy relationships. your resulting User model will have the following attributes:.

DoesNotExist exception and can be accessed as an attribute of the reverse accessor. Additionally, OneToOneField accepts all of the extra arguments accepted by ForeignKey , plus one extra argument:.

When True and used in a model which inherits from another concrete model , indicates that this field should be used as the link back to the parent class, rather than the extra OneToOneField which would normally be implicitly created by subclassing. See One-to-one relationships for usage examples of OneToOneField.

Field is an abstract class that represents a database table column. A field is thus a fundamental piece in different Django APIs, notably, models and querysets.

In models, a field is instantiated as a class attribute and represents a particular table column, see Models. It has attributes such as null and unique , and methods that Django uses to map the field value to database-specific values.

A Field is a subclass of RegisterLookupMixin and thus both Transform and Lookup can be registered on it to be used in QuerySet s e. All built-in lookups are registered by default. If you need a custom field, you can either subclass any of the built-in fields or write a Field from scratch.

In either case, see How to create custom model fields. A verbose description of the field, e. for the django. admindocs application. A class implementing the descriptor protocol that is instantiated and assigned to the model instance attribute. The constructor must accept a single argument, the Field instance. Overriding this class attribute allows for customizing the get and set behavior. To map a Field to a database-specific type, Django exposes several methods:.

Returns a string naming this field for backend specific purposes. By default, it returns the class name. See Emulating built-in field types for usage in custom fields. Returns the database column data type for the Field , taking into account the connection. See Custom database types for usage in custom fields. Returns the database column data type for fields such as ForeignKey and OneToOneField that point to the Field , taking into account the connection.

There are three main situations where Django needs to interact with the database backend and fields:. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers. Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of cell phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California.

All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection. After a cell phone user was reached, the interviewer verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey e. Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household.

Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called.

Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of landline phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California.

All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection. For both cell phones and landlines, telephone numbers were called as many as eight times. When no contact with an individual was made, calls to a number were limited to six.

Also, to increase our ability to interview Asian American adults, we made up to three additional calls to phone numbers estimated by Survey Sampling International as likely to be associated with Asian American individuals. Accent on Languages, Inc. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt Associates used state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS and the ACS.

The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3.

This means that 95 times out of , the results will be within 3. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, registered voters, the sampling error is ±4. For the sampling errors of additional subgroups, please see the table at the end of this section. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing.

We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.

We also present results for congressional districts currently held by Democrats or Republicans, based on residential zip code and party of the local US House member. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and no party preference or decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis.

We also analyze the responses of likely voters—so designated per their responses to survey questions about voter registration, previous election participation, intentions to vote this year, attention to election news, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to due to rounding. Additional details about our methodology can be found at www. pdf and are available upon request through surveys ppic.

October 14—23, 1, California adult residents; 1, California likely voters English, Spanish. Margin of error ±3. Percentages may not add up to due to rounding. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Gavin Newsom is handling his job as governor of California?

Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? Do you think things in California are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction?

Thinking about your own personal finances—would you say that you and your family are financially better off, worse off, or just about the same as a year ago? Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter? Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican?

Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? Which one of the seven state propositions on the November 8 ballot are you most interested in? Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. It allows in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, and requires that racetracks and casinos that offer sports betting to make certain payments to the state—such as to support state regulatory costs.

The fiscal impact is increased state revenues, possibly reaching tens of millions of dollars annually. Some of these revenues would support increased state regulatory and enforcement costs that could reach the low tens of millions of dollars annually.

If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 26? Initiative Constitutional Amendment. It allows Indian tribes and affiliated businesses to operate online and mobile sports wagering outside tribal lands. It directs revenues to regulatory costs, homelessness programs, and nonparticipating tribes. Some revenues would support state regulatory costs, possibly reaching the mid-tens of millions of dollars annually.

If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 27? Initiative Statute. It allocates tax revenues to zero-emission vehicle purchase incentives, vehicle charging stations, and wildfire prevention. If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 30? Do you agree or disagree with these statements?

Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Joe Biden is handling his job as president? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Alex Padilla is handling his job as US Senator? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Dianne Feinstein is handling her job as US Senator? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the US Congress is handling its job?

Do you think things in the United States are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? How satisfied are you with the way democracy is working in the United States? Are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not too satisfied, or not at all satisfied? These days, do you feel [rotate] [1] optimistic [or] [2] pessimistic that Americans of different political views can still come together and work out their differences?

What is your opinion with regard to race relations in the United States today? Would you say things are [rotate 1 and 2] [1] better , [2] worse , or about the same than they were a year ago? When it comes to racial discrimination, which do you think is the bigger problem for the country today—[rotate] [1] People seeing racial discrimination where it really does NOT exist [or] [2] People NOT seeing racial discrimination where it really DOES exist?

Next, Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom]. Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics—a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? Mark Baldassare is president and CEO of the Public Policy Institute of California, where he holds the Arjay and Frances Fearing Miller Chair in Public Policy.

He is a leading expert on public opinion and survey methodology, and has directed the PPIC Statewide Survey since He is an authority on elections, voter behavior, and political and fiscal reform, and the author of ten books and numerous publications.

Before joining PPIC, he was a professor of urban and regional planning in the School of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine, where he held the Johnson Chair in Civic Governance. He has conducted surveys for the Los Angeles Times , the San Francisco Chronicle , and the California Business Roundtable.

He holds a PhD in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley. Dean Bonner is associate survey director and research fellow at PPIC, where he coauthors the PPIC Statewide Survey—a large-scale public opinion project designed to develop an in-depth profile of the social, economic, and political attitudes at work in California elections and policymaking. He has expertise in public opinion and survey research, political attitudes and participation, and voting behavior.

Before joining PPIC, he taught political science at Tulane University and was a research associate at the University of New Orleans Survey Research Center. He holds a PhD and MA in political science from the University of New Orleans. Rachel Lawler is a survey analyst at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she works with the statewide survey team. In that role, she led and contributed to a variety of quantitative and qualitative studies for both government and corporate clients.

She holds an MA in American politics and foreign policy from the University College Dublin and a BA in political science from Chapman University. Deja Thomas is a survey analyst at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she works with the statewide survey team. Prior to joining PPIC, she was a research assistant with the social and demographic trends team at the Pew Research Center.

In that role, she contributed to a variety of national quantitative and qualitative survey studies. She holds a BA in psychology from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. This survey was supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Ruben Barrales Senior Vice President, External Relations Wells Fargo. Mollyann Brodie Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer Henry J.

Kaiser Family Foundation. Bruce E. Cain Director Bill Lane Center for the American West Stanford University. Jon Cohen Chief Research Officer and Senior Vice President, Strategic Partnerships and Business Development Momentive-AI. Joshua J. Dyck Co-Director Center for Public Opinion University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Lisa García Bedolla Vice Provost for Graduate Studies and Dean of the Graduate Division University of California, Berkeley. Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley.

Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Professor Sol Price School of Public Policy University of Southern California. Carol S. Larson President Emeritus The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Lisa Pitney Vice President of Government Relations The Walt Disney Company. Robert K. Ross, MD President and CEO The California Endowment. Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento.

Helen Iris Torres CEO Hispanas Organized for Political Equality. David C. Wilson, PhD Dean and Professor Richard and Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy University of California, Berkeley. Chet Hewitt, Chair President and CEO Sierra Health Foundation.

Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California. Ophelia Basgal Affiliate Terner Center for Housing Innovation University of California, Berkeley. Louise Henry Bryson Chair Emerita, Board of Trustees J. Paul Getty Trust.

Please check back soon for future events, and sign up to receive invitations to our events and briefings. December 1, Speaker Series on California's Future — Virtual Event. November 30, Virtual Event.

November 18, Annual Water Conference — In-Person and Online. We believe in the power of good information to build a brighter future for California. Help support our mission. Mark Baldassare , Dean Bonner , Rachel Lawler , and Deja Thomas. Supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Miller Foundation and the James Irvine Foundation.

California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional officers and state legislators and to make policy decisions about state propositions.

The midterm election also features a closely divided Congress, with the likelihood that a few races in California may determine which party controls the US House. These are among the key findings of a statewide survey on state and national issues conducted from October 14 to 23 by the Public Policy Institute of California:. Today, there is a wide partisan divide: seven in ten Democrats are optimistic about the direction of the state, while 91 percent of Republicans and 59 percent of independents are pessimistic.

Californians are much more pessimistic about the direction of the country than they are about the direction of the state. Majorities across all demographic groups and partisan groups, as well as across regions, are pessimistic about the direction of the United States.

A wide partisan divide exists: most Democrats and independents say their financial situation is about the same as a year ago, while solid majorities of Republicans say they are worse off. Regionally, about half in the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles say they are about the same, while half in the Central Valley say they are worse off; residents elsewhere are divided between being worse off and the same. The shares saying they are worse off decline as educational attainment increases.

Strong majorities across partisan groups feel negatively, but Republicans and independents are much more likely than Democrats to say the economy is in poor shape. Today, majorities across partisan, demographic, and regional groups say they are following news about the gubernatorial election either very or fairly closely. In the upcoming November 8 election, there will be seven state propositions for voters. Due to time constraints, our survey only asked about three ballot measures: Propositions 26, 27, and For each, we read the proposition number, ballot, and ballot label.

Two of the state ballot measures were also included in the September survey Propositions 27 and 30 , while Proposition 26 was not.

This measure would allow in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, requiring that racetracks and casinos offering sports betting make certain payments to the state to support state regulatory costs. It also allows roulette and dice games at tribal casinos and adds a new way to enforce certain state gambling laws. Fewer than half of likely voters say the outcome of each of these state propositions is very important to them. Today, 21 percent of likely voters say the outcome of Prop 26 is very important, 31 percent say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important, and 42 percent say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important.

Today, when it comes to the importance of the outcome of Prop 26, one in four or fewer across partisan groups say it is very important to them.

About one in three across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important to them. Fewer than half across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important to them. When asked how they would vote if the election for the US House of Representatives were held today, 56 percent of likely voters say they would vote for or lean toward the Democratic candidate, while 39 percent would vote for or lean toward the Republican candidate.

Democratic candidates are preferred by a point margin in Democratic-held districts, while Republican candidates are preferred by a point margin in Republican-held districts.

Abortion is another prominent issue in this election. When asked about the importance of abortion rights, 61 percent of likely voters say the issue is very important in determining their vote for Congress and another 20 percent say it is somewhat important; just 17 percent say it is not too or not at all important. With the controlling party in Congress hanging in the balance, 51 percent of likely voters say they are extremely or very enthusiastic about voting for Congress this year; another 29 percent are somewhat enthusiastic while 19 percent are either not too or not at all enthusiastic.

Today, Democrats and Republicans have about equal levels of enthusiasm, while independents are much less likely to be extremely or very enthusiastic. As Californians prepare to vote in the upcoming midterm election, fewer than half of adults and likely voters are satisfied with the way democracy is working in the United States—and few are very satisfied. Satisfaction was higher in our February survey when 53 percent of adults and 48 percent of likely voters were satisfied with democracy in America.

Today, half of Democrats and about four in ten independents are satisfied, compared to about one in five Republicans. Notably, four in ten Republicans are not at all satisfied. In addition to the lack of satisfaction with the way democracy is working, Californians are divided about whether Americans of different political positions can still come together and work out their differences.

Forty-nine percent are optimistic, while 46 percent are pessimistic. Today, in a rare moment of bipartisan agreement, about four in ten Democrats, Republicans, and independents are optimistic that Americans of different political views will be able to come together. Notably, in , half or more across parties, regions, and demographic groups were optimistic. Today, about eight in ten Democrats—compared to about half of independents and about one in ten Republicans—approve of Governor Newsom.

Across demographic groups, about half or more approve of how Governor Newsom is handling his job. Approval of Congress among adults has been below 40 percent for all of after seeing a brief run above 40 percent for all of Democrats are far more likely than Republicans to approve of Congress. Fewer than half across regions and demographic groups approve of Congress. Approval in March was at 44 percent for adults and 39 percent for likely voters.

Across demographic groups, about half or more approve among women, younger adults, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos. Views are similar across education and income groups, with just fewer than half approving.

Approval in March was at 41 percent for adults and 36 percent for likely voters. Across regions, approval reaches a majority only in the San Francisco Bay Area. Across demographic groups, approval reaches a majority only among African Americans. This map highlights the five geographic regions for which we present results; these regions account for approximately 90 percent of the state population.

Residents of other geographic areas in gray are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately. The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California.

Coauthors of this report include survey analyst Deja Thomas, who was the project manager for this survey; associate survey director and research fellow Dean Bonner; and survey analyst Rachel Lawler. The Californians and Their Government survey is supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1, California adult residents, including 1, interviewed on cell phones and interviewed on landline telephones.

The sample included respondents reached by calling back respondents who had previously completed an interview in PPIC Statewide Surveys in the last six months. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers.

Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of cell phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection. After a cell phone user was reached, the interviewer verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey e.

Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household.

Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of landline phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection.

For both cell phones and landlines, telephone numbers were called as many as eight times. When no contact with an individual was made, calls to a number were limited to six. Also, to increase our ability to interview Asian American adults, we made up to three additional calls to phone numbers estimated by Survey Sampling International as likely to be associated with Asian American individuals.

Accent on Languages, Inc. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt Associates used state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS and the ACS.

The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide.

The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3. This means that 95 times out of , the results will be within 3. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, registered voters, the sampling error is ±4.

For the sampling errors of additional subgroups, please see the table at the end of this section. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.

We also present results for congressional districts currently held by Democrats or Republicans, based on residential zip code and party of the local US House member. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and no party preference or decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis.

We also analyze the responses of likely voters—so designated per their responses to survey questions about voter registration, previous election participation, intentions to vote this year, attention to election news, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to due to rounding. Additional details about our methodology can be found at www. pdf and are available upon request through surveys ppic.

October 14—23, 1, California adult residents; 1, California likely voters English, Spanish. Margin of error ±3.

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The maximum length in bytes of the field. Most ts-node options can be specified in a "ts-node" object using their programmatic, camelCase names. Strong majorities across partisan groups feel negatively, but Republicans and independents are much more likely than Democrats to say the economy is in poor shape. If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 27? echo ' console. Resolve config relative to the current directory instead of the directory of the entrypoint script. Give Edit On Demand a Spin Fast, secure, cloud-based video editing and storage with easy setup and no hidden fees.

The optional save argument controls whether or not the model instance is saved after the file associated with this field has been deleted. ts-node supports a variety of options which can be specified via tsconfig. Find out what it brings to your studio. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Take no action. The PPIC Binary options tape reading Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California.

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